Geotechnical Instrumentation Business Unit
The Geotechnical Instrument Section is one of the most important fields in engineering which relates to the behavior of soil mass and structures in various construction projects In particular, work related to excavation, tunneling land filling and dam Instruments work with the following objectives:
- Performance and workflow
Geotechnical Instrumentation Services
2. Geotechnical Instruments installation service
3. Installation of Automatic dam behavior measurement tools
4. Database management system
1. Geotechnical Equipment Sales
______________________________________________________________________ Slope Indicator (DGSI)
- Soil movement measurement tool (Inclinometer)
- Equipment used to measure changes in the length of soil (Extensometer)
- Equipment used to measure liquid pressure underground (Piezometer)
- Structural inclination measurement tool (Tilt Meter)
- Earth pressure measuring tool (Pressure Cell)
_______________________________________________________________________ Campbell Scientific Inc.
- Automatic measurement and data logger (Data Logger)
_______________________________________________________________________ World Sensing
- Wireless Tiltmeter
- laser distance meter
- VW Node
_______________________________________________________________________ CEP Services Pte Ltd.
- Water Level Indicator
_______________________________________________________________________ San Lien Technology Corp.
- Load cell
- VW HUB
- Rebar Strain Gauge
- Crack Width Gauge
- Plus Tell Tale
2. Geotechnical Instruments installation and monitoring service
The Geotechnical Instruments division have staff with hands on experience in many procedures and work environments. There are installation procedures for each Instruments for use in quality control of installation work as a standard. In the measurement of geotechnical instruments work we are equipped with professional employees, with in-field experienced in measuring work. Furthermore, there are measurement and automatic data recording with remote data transmission systems, including a Database Management System To be used for applications with large amounts of measurement data which can be divided into 4 major categories :
- Observation Well This is an instrument for measuring groundwater level in the well or bore hole.
- Piezometer This is a device used for measuring the water pressure or Pore Water Pressure In the soil at different depths. The most popular types are Standpipe Piezometer, Pneumatic Piezometer and Electric Piezometer.
2.2 Soil mass movement indicator This is an instrument used for measuring the movement of soil mass in the horizontal or vertical axis. These include:
- Surface Settlement Point This is an instrument for measuring subsidence at the soil surface by placing a steel plate attached to a steel pipe at the desired location and using a surveyor's telescope to measure the end of the pipe to determine the subsidence.
Inclinometer a tool used to measure the movement of soil mass deep underground. There are 2 ways that the pipes can be installed, which are 1. Vertically Installing the pipes to measure the Lateral Movement and 2. Installing the pipe horizontally to measure the movement of the soil in the Vertical Movement. The components of the tool consist of an inclined measuring tube (Inclinometer Casing). This Is a special pipe with 4 grooves inside perpendicular so that the Inclinometer Probe can run up and down along this groove where-by measuring will drop the probe into the pipe to the bottom and then the probe will slowly be pulled up whilst recording the inclination every 0.5 meters while being pulled back.
- Extensometer This is a Instruments for measuring the movement of vertical soil layers that are installed in borehole or in land filling. Which can measure the movement of soil at various depths There are many systems to choose from, including Magnets as a measurement (Magnetic Extensometer), a system that uses clamping rings as a measurement
(Sondex System) and systems that use metal or fiber bars (Rod Extensometer
2.3 Structural inclination measurement Instruments (Tilt Meter) These are tools for measuring the tilt of buildings and structures. Such tools include:
Tilt meter This is a tool used for measuring the inclination of buildings and structures which consists of a Tilt Plate , Portable Tiltmeter and a Readout Unit. A Portable Tiltmeter uses the principle of accelerated equilibrium force (Force balanced servo-accelerometer) to measure tilting by the accelerometer. It is mounted in a cylinder that is attached to a metal frame with a flat surface and is fixed in a secure position. The bottom surface of the plate is used for the Tilt Plates installed horizontally and the side surfaces of the plates are for the vertically mounted Tilt Plates. The Tilt Plates are attached to the structure at the specified position. Changes in the inclination of buildings and structures can be found by comparing the last reading (Current Reading) to the first reading (Initial Reading).
- Electro Level (EL Tilt Meter) This is a tool used for measuring the inclination of buildings and structures using a sensor system with a high accuracy it can measure changes in tilting as small as 0.00028 degrees. This tool can be installed easily using a only one swivel bracket, which can mount the EL Tilt Meter to a wall or ceiling. Changes in the inclination of buildings and structures can be found by comparing the last reading (Current Reading) to the first reading (Initial Reading).
2.4 Crack measurement These are tools to be used to track and measure cracks and crevices in buildings and structures. These include:
- Crack Gauge This tool is used to measure the expansion and contraction of cracks. By measuring the pins embedded on 2 sides of the crack to measure the distance changes between the pins you can read the size expansion or contraction of the crack. These tools are able to measure up to 1 mm in accuracy when reading with a vernier.
3. Dam Behavior Measurement Instruments
The dam behavior measurement instrument is a built-in instrument to monitor the safety of the dam during construction and after retaining water. With small dams, it is popular to use measurement by Manual Readings. For medium and large dams, it is popular to use automatic measurements (Automatic Reading)
3.1 Instruments for measuring water level and water pressure Observation Well used to examine the ground water level, Piezometer An Instrument to measure water pressure under the dam and find out the Pore Water Pressure, Reservoir water level meter, Seepage Flowmeter An instrument used to measure the seepage of dams and foundations.
Reservoir water level meter
3.2 Dam movement measuring Instruments Vertical Inclinometer An instrument to measure the movement of the dam in a horizontal plane to measure the movement of the soil mass deep under the dam, In-place Inclinometer, SAA etc.
3.3 Dam Settlement Measurement Instrument The vertical dam motion measurement tools include - Surface Settlement point, to measure surface subsidence. Benchmark, Magnetic Extensometer, Rod Extensometer, Cross -Arm etc.
3.4 Seismic wave detector Accelerograph A Strong Motion Accelerograph (SMA) is a tool designed to measure vibrations with the objective to find the acceleration of the ground in that area Caused by earthquakes.
Signal recorder with built-in sensor GEODAS software
3.5 Weather Station Weather Stations are used to measure changes in the atmosphere. they include Climate measuring systems such as Rain gauges, Air Temperature & Relative Humidity measuring Instruments, Wind Speed and Direction measuring Instruments, Barometric Pressure measuring Instruments, Solar Radiation measuring Instruments and Evaporation Gauges.
Air Temperature & Relative Humidity
Win Speed and Direction
3.6. Automatic data measurement and long-distance data transmission system An automatic datalogger is installed to store instrument data which can connect through channel amplifiers (Multiplexer). It can be connected to the transmission system via Wireless Lan Modules to send data to the company’s main computer at their office, which will have installed the STS-DMS program to interpret the data.
4. Database Management System
This is a database system created to collect data on the installation and measurements of geotechnical equipment. For projects that want to check long-term results by collecting data from the measuring equipment and recording data automatically (data logger). The data is then transmitted via the Internet or wireless network to be stored on the Server. Staff are then able to browse through the project's website or mobile phone to check the information when needed.
STS-DMS This is a database management system which displays the results of various construction projects such as the Orange Line Metro Project. MRT Yellow Line Project Blue Line Project MRT Purple Line Project and the Pink Line Metro Project
i-Monitor This is a database management system which displays the results of various dams such as Kiu Kho Ma Dam. Krasiao Dam Khwae Noi Dam, Bamrung Dan Huai Chang Dam, Mae Tam Dam, Doi Ngu Dam, Khlong Tron Dam, etc.